Scale bar 10mm. Copyright CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, hypogeal germination. Copyright CSIRO
10th leaf stage. Copyright CSIRO
Fruit, two side views and longitudinal section. Copyright W. T. Cooper
Flowers and buds. Copyright CSIRO
Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi
Panigrahi, S.G. &Murti, (1989) Flora Bilaspur District 1: 210. Type: ?.
Pongamia pinnata var. typica Domin, Bibliotheca Botanica 89(3): 787(1926), Type: ?. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Flora Forestiere de la Cochinchinensis: Pl. 3(1899), Type: ?. Cytisus pinnatus L., Species Plantarum: 741(1753), Type: India(?), Plukenet Phytographia, (1690) 104. f. 3. Fide Smith, A. C. Flora Vitiensis Nova 3:170 (1985). Pongamia glabra var. minor Benth., Flora Australiensis 2: 273(1864), Type: Gulf of Carpentaria, Leichhardt; Cape Grafton, A. Cunningham; Port Denison, Fitzalan.
Pongam; Pongamia Tree; Indian Pongamia; Indian Beech; Pongamia
Bean-like (Phaseolus vulgaris) odour often detectable in the blaze.
Leaflet blades about 6-23 x 4-13 cm. Leaflet stalks slightly swollen and transversely wrinkled. Compound leaf axis grooved on the upper surface.
Calyx about 3 mm long. Corolla about 8-10 mm long. Petals with appressed hairs on the outer surface, but glabrous or sparsely hairy on the inner surface. Stamens 10, the filaments of nine fused and one stamen free. Stamens alternately long and short. Anthers with hairs along the connective on the back of the anther. Ovary with appressed hairs. Ovules, 2 rarely 3.
Pods usually indehiscent, about 55-70 x 20-30 mm. Seeds somewhat flattened, transversely elliptical, about 12 x 9 mm. Testa smooth.
First pair of leaves cordate. At the tenth leaf stage: leaflets ovate, apex acute, base cuneate to truncate, terminal leaflet larger than the lateral leaflets; leaflet petiole slightly swollen and dark in colour. Stipules hairy, about 1-1.5 mm long, apex obtuse.
Distribution and Ecology
Occurs in NT, CYP, NEQ and southwards as far as coastal central Queensland. Usually grows on beaches or in beach forest close to the sea. Also occurs in the Mascarenes, Asia, Malesia, New Caledonia and other Pacific islands.
This species may have medicinal properties, and has been used as a fish poison. (http://squid2.laughingsquid.net/hosts/herbweb.com /herbage/A21311.htm)
In Australia the tree's main use has been as an Aboriginal fish poison, but it has been useful medicinally elsewhere, especially in India. Juice from the fresh leaves is regarded as having medicinal value. The roots are regarded as a contraceptive. Cribb (1981).