Scale bar 10mm. Copyright CSIRO
Leaves and Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Leaves and fruits. Copyright CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, epigeal germination. Copyright CSIRO
Solanum parvifolium subsp. tropicum
Solanum parvifolium subsp. tropicum A.R.Bean
Bean, A.R. (2004) Austrobaileya 6: 700. Type: Queensland, Herberton Water Supply Weir, Wild River, Moomin, 25 April 2002, P.I. Forster 28670; Holo: BRI; Iso: AD, K, L, MEL. MO, NSW.
Solanum stelligerum Sm., Exotic Botany 2: 57(1806), Type: NSW; holo: LINN..
Nightshade; Nightshade, Star; Star Nightshade; Devil's Needles
Usually flowers and fruits as a shrub about 1-2 m tall but also flowers when smaller.
Straight spines, about 2-8 mm long, present on the twigs and often also present on the petioles and upper surface of the leaf blade. Stellate hairs present on the twigs, petioles and underside of the leaf blades, scattered stellate hairs may also be visible on the upper surface. Leaf blades about 3-10 x 1-3 cm, petioles about 0.5-2 cm long. Lateral veins about 7-9, depressed on the upper surface of the leaf blade.
Pedicels about 10-20 mm long, clothed in stellate hairs. Calyx about 6-8 mm long, lobes about 3-6 mm long, outer surface of the calyx stellate hairy. Corolla about 20-25 mm diam., outer surface stellate hairy. Anthers about 4-5 mm long. Ovary hairy, at least towards the apex.
Fruits globular, about 5-11 mm diam., calyx lobes persistent at the base. Seeds numerous, 10 or more per fruit, each seed about 1.5-4 x 3 mm, testa tuberculate. Embryo tiny, coiled, cotyledons very small, no wider than the radicle.
Cotyledons elliptic to narrowly elliptic, about 10-14 x 4-5 mm, upper and lower surfaces hairy, petioles about 4-5 mm long. First pair of leaves alternate and clothed in stellate hairs. At the tenth leaf stage: stem, petiole and both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade armed with straight spines. Stem, petiole and lower leaf blade surfaces also clothed in stellate hairs, upper leaf blade surface +/- glabrous or very sparsely clothed in stellate hairs.
Distribution and Ecology
Endemic to Australia, occurs in CYP, NEQ and southwards as far as south-eastern New South Wales. Altitudinal range in CYP and NEQ from near sea level to 950 m. Often grows in open eucalypt forest but also found in beach forest, monsoon forest and rain forest margins.
Fruits eaten by Aborigines in coastal New South Wales. Purdie et al. (1982).
Herb (herbaceous or woody, under 1 m tall)
Shrub (woody or herbaceous, 1-6 m tall)